MARTIN BUBER A Life of Faith and Dissent By Paul Mendes-Flohr
Martin Buber vaulted into prominence in German intellectual life in the first years of the 20th century, when he was still in his early 20s. His fame and influence spread across Western Europe in the decades that followed, as well as to Palestine, where he was compelled to flee at the late date of 1938. Although his presence in the United States has somewhat diminished, during the years after World War II he was repeatedly a center of attention here. In the early 1950s, when he was past 70, he toured the country, giving dozens of lectures, often to packed audiences. In a reflection of those times, Saul Bellow in “Herzog” (1964) impishly chose to make Valentine Gersbach, the lover of Herzog’s wife, an apostle of Buber’s teaching, urging Herzog to read “I and Thou” and related books in the midst of energetically cuckolding him.
Paul Mendes-Flohr, a distinguished scholar of German-Jewish intellectual life, has written a scrupulously researched, perceptive biography of Buber that evinces an authoritative command of all the contexts through which Buber moved. “Martin Buber: A Life of Faith and Dissent” is perhaps less a biography than an intellectual history of Buber, although the essential facts of his life are duly reported. Mendes-Flohr indulges in little psychological speculation, apart from the effect that Buber’s abandonment by his mother when he was 3 (she ran off with a Russian officer) may have had on his later emphasizing the maternal element in spiritual life. After his mother’s abrupt departure, Buber was sent to live with his observant and scholarly grandparents, who home-schooled him. He stayed with them until the age of 14, when his father remarried. But by adolescence Buber had permanently broken with Orthodoxy, though he remained in a peculiar sense, to which I shall return, a religious Jew. One reflection of his freedom from the constraints of Jewish tradition is that while a student at the University of Zurich, he fell in love with Paula Winkler, a young woman born in a pious Catholic home, and had two children out of wedlock with her. She later converted to Judaism and became his lifelong emotional and intellectual soul mate.
Mendes-Flohr’s account shows the breadth and depth of Buber’s engagement in German culture. He studied with the eminent philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey and the famous sociologist Georg Simmel, both of whom significantly influenced him. He frequented social circles that included Max Weber, Edmund Husserl, Rainer Maria Rilke and other leading writers and thinkers. From the beginning, he was an advocate of a renewal of Judaism, first in the Zionist movement, with which he maintained a heterodox relationship that persisted over the years, and an interlocutor with the broader European world, including some prominent Christians. The primacy of dialogue in his thought was manifested in most of his cultural activities from early on. This idea would be embraced not only by liberal Jews but also by Christian theologians and secular thinkers.
One must add that Buber was a powerfully charismatic presence early and late. He was already electrifying audiences as a 20-year-old at Zionist congresses. I heard him speak in Hebrew in Jerusalem to a student group in 1960, in the last decade of his life, and can attest that with his quietly reflective delivery, enhanced by a snowy-white “prophetic” beard, he projected an aura of spiritual authority.
The deeply felt sincerity with which Buber invoked the idea of God shouldn’t be doubted, but it’s not easy to know what he meant by it. He has been accurately called a religious anarchist. Despite his involvement in the Bible, he did not regard it or the tradition built on it as embodying divine prescriptions, and he resisted institutional religion. Gershom Scholem, his sometime friend but on occasion a severe critic, told a European audience not long after Buber’s death in 1965 that, in Mendes-Flohr’s formulation, this “consciously and defiantly ‘heretical’ vision of Jewish renewal proved to be exasperatingly utopian, given its nearly exclusive focus on spiritual sensibility and its lack of normative content.” Scholem, the magisterial scholar of Jewish mysticism and heresies, was himself far from embracing any normative version of Judaism, but I think he aptly identified a core of vagueness, an elusiveness, underlying Buber’s religious thought. He was an inspiring figure who in often poetic prose erected elegant bridges between Judaism and general philosophy and theology, but there were unbridgeable contradictions at the heart of his enterprise, as the subtitle of this fine biography suggests.B:
九龙心水高手论谈【李】【天】【似】【笑】【非】【笑】【地】【看】【着】【她】【们】，【一】【言】【而】【不】【发】。 【胡】【媚】【和】【欧】【阳】【珂】【被】【看】【得】【有】【脸】【上】【闪】【过】【一】【丝】【线】【不】【自】【然】【的】【神】【色】，【她】【们】【看】【出】【来】【了】，【她】【们】【的】【心】【思】【被】【看】【穿】，【获】【取】【宝】【物】【目】【的】【是】【其】【一】，【更】【重】【要】【阿】【房】【宫】【或】【者】【秦】【陵】【墓】【中】【有】【着】【武】【道】【前】【进】【的】【方】【法】。 【而】【这】【在】【修】【真】【被】【天】【地】【限】【掉】【不】【得】【寸】【进】【的】【情】【况】【下】，【修】【武】【自】【然】【成】【了】【其】【中】【的】【一】【个】【选】【择】，【毕】【竟】【以】【他】【们】【现】【在】【在】【仙】【境】
【郑】【清】【玥】【揉】【了】【揉】【快】【被】【震】【聋】【的】【耳】【朵】，【嫌】【弃】【的】【看】【着】【宫】【枢】。 “【至】【于】【吗】?” “【我】【就】【让】【小】【兽】【兽】，【轻】【轻】【的】【咬】【了】【一】【小】【口】。” “【轻】【轻】【的】?” “【一】【小】【口】?” 【宫】【枢】【瞪】【大】【了】【眼】【睛】，【气】【的】【语】【无】【伦】【次】【了】【快】。 【轻】【轻】【的】【能】【那】【么】【大】【牙】【印】！ 【一】【小】【口】【能】【把】【他】【半】【边】【脸】【都】【疼】【紫】【了】！ 【郑】【清】【玥】【瞥】【了】【一】【眼】，【差】【点】【忍】【俊】【不】【住】。 【好】【像】【是】【有】【点】
【欧】【阳】【云】【霄】【消】【失】【之】【后】，【李】【睿】【走】【到】【庆】【鸿】【凯】【面】【前】【说】【道】：“【岳】【父】【大】【人】，” 【庆】【鸿】【凯】【点】【点】【头】：“【小】【睿】，【以】【后】【韵】【儿】【就】【交】【给】【你】【了】，【作】【为】【你】【的】【亲】【人】【我】【肯】【定】【会】【不】【予】【余】【力】【的】【支】【持】【你】【们】【的】【计】【划】，” 【李】【睿】【点】【点】【头】：“【多】【谢】，【岳】【父】【的】【支】【持】，” 【庆】【鸿】【凯】：“【那】【么】【我】【明】【天】【就】【会】【宣】【布】【你】【和】【韵】【儿】【的】【婚】【事】，【下】【个】【月】【十】【五】【号】【就】【是】【一】【个】【好】【日】【子】，【日】【子】【就】【定】【在】
【风】【鸣】【城】，【位】【于】【萨】【哈】【沙】【漠】【之】【中】，【由】【于】【每】【当】【狂】【风】【吹】【过】，【城】【市】【之】【间】【会】【响】【起】【风】【鸣】【之】【声】【而】【得】【名】。【不】【过】【因】【为】【风】【鸣】【城】【的】【特】【殊】【地】【理】【位】【置】，【是】【沙】【漠】【之】【路】【上】【非】【常】【重】【要】【的】【一】【座】【城】【市】，【更】【是】【沙】【漠】【经】【济】【贸】【易】【中】【心】，【往】【来】【吆】【喝】，【好】【不】【繁】【华】。 【一】【个】【月】【前】，【肖】【炎】【来】【到】【了】【风】【鸣】【城】，【借】【助】【一】【手】【高】【超】【的】【炼】【丹】【术】【让】【他】【快】【速】【地】【在】【当】【地】【有】【了】【一】【些】【名】【气】，【也】【积】【攒】【了】【一】【定】【的】九龙心水高手论谈“【此】【次】【你】【回】【凤】【鸾】，【就】【让】【他】【护】【送】【你】【回】【去】，【我】【也】【好】【放】【心】【一】【点】。” 【云】【中】【歌】【难】【得】【正】【经】。 【这】【次】【是】【把】【宝】【珠】【公】【主】【给】【惹】【狠】【了】，【难】【保】【路】【上】【会】【有】【人】【拦】【截】，【有】【张】【有】【贵】【跟】【着】【就】【安】【全】【许】【多】。 “【行】，【有】【劳】【国】【师】【了】，【那】【我】【就】【走】【了】。”【冯】【小】【宝】【点】【点】【头】。 “【唉】，【不】——【不】【要】【离】【开】【我】，【我】【受】【不】【了】。” 【众】【人】： 【妈】【呀】， 【国】
【转】【眼】【就】【是】【八】【月】【了】。 【八】【月】【才】【开】【头】，【一】【场】【大】【战】【就】【拉】【开】【了】【序】【幕】。 【历】【经】【半】【年】【多】【的】【制】【作】，'【周】【氏】【传】【媒】【兄】【弟】【总】【算】【是】【赶】【上】【了】【档】【期】，【耗】【费】【巨】【资】【开】【始】【宣】【传】《【江】【城】【堡】【垒】》。 【他】【们】【是】【打】【算】【将】【碰】【瓷】【王】【小】【白】【进】【行】【到】【底】【了】。 【虽】【然】【在】【这】【场】【号】【称】【耗】【子】【一】【个】【亿】【的】【宣】【传】【大】【战】'【中】，【他】【们】【没】【有】【指】【名】【点】【姓】【的】【碰】【瓷】【王】【小】【白】，【可】【却】【在】【宣】【传】【的】【时】【候】，【处】【处】【打】
“【发】【布】【任】【务】：【请】【体】【验】【清】【理】【马】【厩】【工】【作】，【请】【掌】【握】【基】【础】【骑】【马】【技】【术】。 【任】【务】【奖】【励】：【专】【家】【级】【兽】【语】！ 【宿】【主】【加】【油】【哦】，【想】【于】【动】【物】【交】【流】，【怎】【么】【能】【不】【付】【出】【呢】，【你】【要】【想】【办】【法】【了】【解】【它】【们】！” 【刚】【刚】【下】【车】，【其】【他】【人】【走】【在】【前】【边】【正】【在】【好】【奇】【的】【打】【量】【着】【眼】【前】【这】【片】【空】【旷】【的】【场】【地】【和】【来】【来】【往】【往】【的】【骑】【士】，【张】【扬】【由】【于】【驾】【车】，【是】【最】【后】【一】【个】【从】【车】【里】【下】【来】【的】。 【只】【是】…